Hudson Lacerda

ABC music notation resources

Conheça A Música de Hudson Lacerda neste sítio:



Here you find ABC music notation stuff I've made:

abcm2ps extensions (.fmt files) and docs:

fmt.tgz (guitar fingering and fret diagrams, shaped notes, movable doh, powered annotations, and more - GNU GPLv2)

ps_fmt.tgz (by David Lacroix) implements many extensions in a single .fmt file (GNU GPLv3) (how to write your own extensions)

abcm2ps-5.9.7-html-en.tgz (abcm2ps documentation in HTML format) 

gen-abc-docs.tgz (tools to generate the HTML doc files)

TKmicroabc and microabc (tools for microtonal music):

tkmicroabc-alpha.tgz (includes binaries for GNU+Linux - requires Tcl/Tk)

microabc-src-2012-06-01.tar.gz (source code - NEW VERSION)

microabc-windows32.tgz (executables for Windows - cross-compiled, untested) 

microabc-tutorial.pdf (microabc guide) 

abc2sco (converts ABC to Csound SCO and Scala SEQ formats):

abc2sco-2010-08-15.tgz (requires Tcl and tclabc - BE AWARE: Put a copy of in the same folder!)

Main features:

  • Export Csound .sco
  • Export Csound .csd (using template)
  • Export Scala .seq
  • Interpret dynamics !ffff! - !pppp!
  • Interpret articulations !stacatto! (.), !accent! (L) and slurs.
  • Continuous tempo changes combining Q: with !acell.! or !rall.!.
  • Support microtonalism (equal and linear temperaments)
  • Read user settings from file ~/.abc2scorc (generated at the first run)
  • Extended ABC commands for Csound via %%csound or I:csound

abc2pmw (converts ABC files into PMW input format)

abc2pmw.tgz (requires Tcl and tclabc - BE AWARE: Put a copy of in the same folder!)

(abc2pmw is in initial development stage. Input files can be in ABC or MIDI formats.)

 Have also a look at:

 ( This site has test files for ABC programmers: )


PVC flute design

Do you want to build home-made flutes?

Here are a few GNU Octave files to compute dimensions for flutes:


Start Octave and issue  help flutedesign  and  demo flutedesign  to learn how to use it. There is also a script called flutetest as a more sophisticated example.

For "Pan flutes" (known under names as siku or zampoña), the function file tubo.m can compute the tube length (in centimeters) from frequency (in Hertz). Optional arguments allow to compute the frequency from the length, and set the temperature or sound velocity. For example, tubo(440) returns 19.602. This means an internal tube length of 19.6cm for the pitch A in the middle octave -- the actual tube should be a bit longer since the bottom end takes some closed space (e.g. the bamboo node).

You can compute the frequencies for the 12-tone equal tempered scale in these pages:

Have a look at Guido Gonzato's The Low-Tech' Whistle: How to Make a PVC Whistle page and Pete Kosel's Some Successful Designs for Inexpensive PVC Flutes. My flutedesign.m file is based on Kosel's Flutomat Javascript calculator. Other interesting pages are:

La Quena:

El Siku:

Making Pan flutes:


NAFlutomat - NAF Design tool:


harpa is a program to aid the study of the harmonic possibilities of the harp (pedal combinations), using pitch class set theory principles.

Original version (harpa.exe) is for MS-DOS (folder ./harpa/distro/). There is also an adaptation for GNU+Linux (harpa, in ./harpa/fontes/).

harpa.tar.bz2 (interative interface and documentation are in Portuguese. Here is an English reference.)

music files

Here are a few audio files of compositions:

Valsa (version for two guitars) -- originally composed for solo guitar in (or maybe before) 1993. Played by Duo Lacerda-Barbeitas (Hudson Lacerda and Flavio Barbeitas). Live recording, Sala Juvenal Dias, Palácio das Artes -- Belo Horizonte/MG/Brasil (2009Jun17).

Três pequenas peças (for solo guitar) -- Three short pieces in an atonal style, composed in 1996. Played by Hudson Lacerda. Recorded at Escola de Música da UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG/Brasil (2003).

Valsa No. 2 (solo version) -- composed in 2006. There is also a version for two guitars. Played by Hudson Lacerda. - Video recorded by Paulo Marcos de Aguiar at his atelier, using a mobile phone camera. Confins/MG/Brasil (2009Dec12). - Audio recording for the institutional CD "Panorama I" - Escola de Música da UEMG (Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais). Belo Horizonte/MG/Brasil (2009).

Impro (in 17-WT) -- microtonal improvisation in 17-tone well temperament. This tuning was designed by George Secor to improve the intonation relative to 17 equal divisions of the octave. The sound synthesis was realised using ZynAddSubFX. Contagem/MG/Brasil (2006Nov02).

Fracta (for saxophone) -- Solo piece composed in 1997 and performed by José Giovane Corrêa. II Mostra de Composição da Escola de Música da UFMG. Belo Horizonte/MG/Brasil (1997).

12c (synthesized sound) --  A microtonal piece played at a MIDI keyboard. Tuning is based on the division of the octave by 99 parts (12.121212 cents). The sound synthesis was realised using ZynAddSubFX. Contagem/MG/Brasil (2006).

music scores

Fantasia (for solo treble recorder)

Fracta (for solo alto saxophone)

Choro (for free instrumentation, like e.g.: solo harpsichord; solo piano; recorder and bassoon...)

Sonoridades (5 studies for guitar)








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